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Long-acting inhaled bronchodilators, including anticholinergic Tiotropium ( Spiriva ), are recommended for the maintenance therapy of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ). It has been show ...


Long-term exposure to ambient air pollution is associated with cerebrovascular disease and cognitive impairment, but whether it is related to structural changes in the brain is not clear. Researcher ...


EGFR belongs to the ErbB family of transmembrane tyrosine kinase receptors ( ErbB comprises ErbB1/EGFR/HER1, ErbB2/HER2/NEU, ErbB3/HER3, and ErbB4/HER4 ). EGFR exists as a monomer and can initiate ...


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ) is frequently accompanied by multimorbidities in affected patients. Even though the majority of these comorbidities are also related to advanced age and ...


Tiotropium plus Olodaterol ( Europe: Spiolto Respimat; US: Stiolto Respimat ) improves lung function and symptoms compared to monotherapies in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ( COPD ). The O ...


In a study with mice, researchers at Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health have found that e-cigarettes compromise the immune system in the lungs and generate some of the same potentially da ...


Key goals in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia ( CAP ) include early response to treatment and achievement of clinical stability. The US FDA ( Food and Drug Admnistration ) recommends ea ...


Although high-dose N-Acetylcysteine ( NAC; Acetylcysteine; Fluimucil ) has been suggested to reduce COPD ( chronic obstructive pulmonary disease ) exacerbations, it is unclear which category of patien ...


Ambrisentan ( US: Letairis; EU: Volibris ) is an oral selective endothelin receptor antagonist licensed for use in pulmonary arterial hypertension ( PAH ). There are few data on clinical use and lon ...


Riociguat ( Adempas ) is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for the treatment of inoperable and persistent / recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension ( CTEPH ). In the ...


Researchers have conducted a meta-analysis of randomised trials to evaluate the efficacy and safety of inhaled antibiotics in patients with stable non-cystic fibrosis ( CF ) bronchiectasis. 12 tria ...


Many patients with severe asthma require regular treatment with oral glucocorticoids despite the use of high-dose inhaled therapy. However, the regular use of systemic glucocorticoids can result in se ...


Pulmonary vascular leakage occurs early in acute respiratory distress syndrome ( ARDS ). Mortality is high ( 35–45% ), but no effective pharmacotherapy exists. Production of anti-inflammatory adenosin ...


Pirfenidone ( Esbriet ) is a novel antifibrotic drug for the treatment of mild-to-moderate idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis ( IPF ). However, adverse events may offset treatment benefits and compliance. ...


Aclidinium bromide / Formoterol fumarate ( 400/12 mcg ) is a fixed dose combination of two approved long-acting bronchodilators with different mechanisms of action and similar pharmocodynamic profiles ...